Subscribe to our free daily newsletters
  Solar Energy News  




Subscribe to our free daily newsletters



SOLAR DAILY
On perovskites produced by mechanochemistry
by Staff Writers
Warsaw, Poland (SPX) Jan 15, 2016


A simple, fast and safe method of obtaining perovskites has been discovered by scientists from IPC PAS in Warsaw, Poland. The perovskite (a black powder) is milled from two powders: a white one, methylammonium iodide, and a yellow one, lead iodide. Image courtesy IPC PAS, Grzegorz Krzyzewski. For a larger version of this image please go here.

Perovskites, substances that perfectly absorb light, are the future of solar energy. The opportunity for their rapid dissemination has just increased thanks to a cheap and environmentally safe method of production of these materials, developed by chemists from Warsaw, Poland. Rather than in solutions at a high temperature, perovskites can now be synthesized by solid-state mechanochemical processes: by grinding powders.

We associate the milling of chemicals less often with progress than with old-fashioned pharmacies and their inherent attributes: the pestle and mortar. It's time to change this! Recent research findings show that by the use of mechanical force, effective chemical transformations take place in solid state.

Mechanochemical reactions have been under investigation for many years by the teams of Prof. Janusz Lewi?ski from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IPC PAS) and the Faculty of Chemistry of Warsaw University of Technology. In their latest publication, the Warsaw researchers describe a surprisingly simple and effective method of obtaining perovskites - futuristic photovoltaic materials with a spatially complex crystal structure.

"With the aid of mechanochemistry we are able to synthesize a variety of hybrid inorganic-organic functional materials with a potentially great significance for the energy sector. Our youngest 'offspring' are high quality perovskites. These compounds can be used to produce thin light-sensitive layers for high efficiency solar cells," says Prof. Lewi?ski.

Perovskites are a large group of materials, characterized by a defined spatial crystalline structure. In nature, the perovskite naturally occurring as a mineral is calcium titanium(IV) oxide CaTiO3. Here the calcium atoms are arranged in the corners of the cube, in the middle of each wall there is an oxygen atom and at the centre of the cube lies a titanium atom.

In other types of perovskite the same crystalline structure can be constructed of various organic and inorganic compounds, which means titanium can be replaced by, for example, lead, tin or germanium. As a result, the properties of the perovskite can be adjusted so as to best fit the specific application, for example, in photovoltaics or catalysis, but also in the construction of superconducting electromagnets, high voltage transformers, magnetic refrigerators, magnetic field sensors, or RAM memories.

At first glance, the method of production of perovskites using mechanical force, developed at the IPC PAS, looks a little like magic.

"Two powders are poured into the ball mill: a white one, methylammonium iodide CH3NH3I, and a yellow one, lead iodide PbI2. After several minutes of milling no trace is left of the substrates. Inside the mill there is only a homogeneous black powder: the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3," explains doctoral student Anna Maria Cie?lak (IPC PAS).

"Hour after hour of waiting for the reaction product? Solvents? High temperatures? In our method, all this turns out to be unnecessary! We produce chemical compounds by reactions occurring only in solids at room temperature," stresses Dr. Daniel Prochowicz (IPC PAS).

The mechanochemically manufactured perovskites were sent to the team of Prof. Michael Graetzel from the Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne in Switzerland, where they were used to build a new laboratory solar cell. The performance of the cell containing the perovskite with a mechanochemical pedigree proved to be more than 10% greater than a cell's performance with the same construction, but containing an analogous perovskite obtained by the traditional method, involving solvents.

"The mechanochemical method of synthesis of perovskites is the most environmentally friendly method of producing this class of materials. Simple, efficient and fast, it is ideal for industrial applications. With full responsibility we can state: perovskites are the materials of the future, and mechanochemistry is the future of perovskites," concludes Prof. Lewi?ski.

The described research will be developed within GOTSolar collaborative project funded by the European Commission under the Horizon 2020 Future and Emerging Technologies action.

Perovskites are not the only group of three-dimensional materials that has been produced mechanochemically by Prof. Lewi?ski's team. In a recent publication the Warsaw researchers showed that by using the milling technique they can also synthesize inorganic-organic microporous MOF (Metal-Organic Framework) materials. The free space inside these materials is the perfect place to store different chemicals, including hydrogen.

The research on mechanochemical methods for the synthesis of three-dimensional structures is funded by the TEAM and MISTRZ grants of the Foundation for Polish Science.


Thanks for being here;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.

SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once


credit card or paypal
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5 Billed Monthly


paypal only

.


Related Links
Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences
All About Solar Energy at SolarDaily.com






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

Previous Report
SOLAR DAILY
Green campaigners back Italian giant's tilt to renewable energy
Rome (AFP) Jan 11, 2016
Italian energy giant Enel was Monday putting the finishing touches to a corporate restructure designed to put renewables at the core of the company's strategy in a move hailed by erstwhile critic Greenpeace. Enel Green Power (EGP), a separately-listed subsidiary which is active in wind, solar power, hydro-electric, geothermal and biomass power generation, is to be fully integrated into Enel ... read more


SOLAR DAILY
Second-generation biofuels can reduce emissions

Preventing food waste better strategy than turning it into biogas

Automakers' green push lifts use of hemp, citrus peel

NREL's Min Zhang keeps her 'hugs' happy, leading to biofuel breakthroughs

SOLAR DAILY
New social robot Nadine has a personality

Human-machine superintelligence can solve the world's most dire problems

NTU scientists unveil social and telepresence robots

U.S. Marine Corps rules out robotic dog, mule

SOLAR DAILY
Scotland sees local benefits from renewables

Dutch vote 'setback' to green energy plan: Greenpeace

South Australian Government renews energy for change

Approval of South Australian Wind Farm

SOLAR DAILY
Diesel cars' prospects in US dim with VW scandal

Google reveals self-driving car slip-ups

US authorities rebuff VW diesel recall plan

Auto industry's green push challenged by low gas prices

SOLAR DAILY
A nanophotonic comeback for incandescent bulbs

A simple way to make lithium-ion battery electrodes that protect themselves

Unique 2-level cathode structure improves battery performance

Inventive thinkers at NREL reach record number

SOLAR DAILY
IAEA Starts Assessment of Japan's Efforts on Safe Use of Nuclear Plants

Japan to send plutonium cache to US under nuclear deal: report

Graphene filter can clean nuclear wastewater

Belgian nuclear reactor shut down three days after restarting

SOLAR DAILY
What motivates people to walk and bike? It varies by income

Energy efficiency may encourage greater demand

GE to move headquarters to Boston for tech gains

Global electricity production vulnerable to climate and water resource change

SOLAR DAILY
NUS study shows the causes of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia

The Amazon's future

Tens of millions of trees in danger from California drought

Modeling Amazonian transitional forest micrometeorology




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News






The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2017 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement